Make D3 v4 Charts Responsive with the viewBox attribute

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Published 8 years ago
Updated 5 years ago

Making SVGs responsive is unfortunately not as simple as adding some media queries. This lesson introduces the viewBox attribute, which is used to control how SVGs scale. We’ll also examine a reusable function that can be used to make nearly any visualization responsive.

[00:00] We now have a nice little chart with X and Y axes, but it's drawn at a specific set of dimensions. For this lesson, I've changed these dimensions to be 400 by 600 just to make some math a little bit easier.

[00:13] There are a number of ways that you can make D3 charts responsive, but the best and probably most common is to use the viewBox attribute of SVG, which essentially just takes advantage of the vector nature, and scales your graphics accordingly.

[00:28] Before we get into the actual syntax changes, I want to look at an example article that makes some really good points, and spells things out really well. This article is "Understanding SVG Coordinate Systems" by Sara Soueidan, and it's really, really good. I definitely suggest you check it out.

[00:45] The first part we're going to look at is the section on the viewport. It tells us that the viewport is the viewing area where the SVG will be visible. This is important to remember. It says, "You can think of the viewport as a window through which you can see the scene."

[01:00] If we come down here, and it specifically tells us you specify the size of the viewport using the width and height attributes on the outermost SVG element. We've done that already. We're creating our SVG, and setting its width and height attributes here. We've got this part covered.

[01:17] What we're interested in to make things responsive, though, is what's called the viewBox. We can see here that Sara says she thinks of the viewBox as the real coordinate system, because it's the coordinate system used to draw the SVG onto the canvas.

[01:32] You can see here that the viewBox uses a space-separated list of values which represent the minimum X and Y, and then the width and the height. If we just want to see how this works in our own code, let's go in here.

[01:45] I'm first going to create a couple of variables just to save on space here in our screencast. Here, I'm creating full width and full height variables that will hold the actual full size of our SVG. We're setting the width and height attributes of our SVG to include the margins, since that is part of our SVG. It's just used to make room for our axes.

[02:08] Let's go ahead and create a viewBox attribute here. We'll use another template string to set its value, where our X and Y are 00since we want it to start at the top left. Then we're just going to use our full width and full height so that our viewBox is set to 400 and 600.

[02:25] If we save this, nothing looks different. It's exactly the same as it was before.

[02:30] However, if we were to, say, cut these values in half -- so half of our width and half of our height -- and now we save this, we see that our chart is actually too big for the visible area here, which is a little bit weird, because we've told it the viewBox should be half the size of our existing SVG, not twice as big.

[02:50] What's going on? For this, we'll go back to Sara's article here. We can see that she has a great little explanation of what actually happens. In her case, her SVG was 800 by 600, and 400 by 300 was half of the amount.

[03:06] In our case, we've got 400 by 600, but we're still using half-size values for the viewBox. It tells us that it specifies that a region of the canvas spanning from 00to 400 by 300 -- or in our case, 200 by 300 -- is going to be used.

[03:23] The SVG graphics are drawn in the entire area available. The SVG is then going to be cropped according to that region. Then that region is going to be scaled up to fill the entire viewport, which again, remember, the viewport are the SVG's width and height attributes.

[03:41] What's happening here is our chart was being drawn to essentially fill this gray area. The viewBox is then drawn to half of that area, pinned at the top left. Essentially, this top quarter. It's cropping that, and then that top quarter is getting scaled up.

[03:59] That's why, when we cut the viewBox down in half, we end up with a graphic that's two times as big. If we were to make the viewBox twice as large as our area, we'll get a small graphic. In this case, the graphic was drawn to fill this whole gray area.

[04:19] Then an area twice the size of this gray area was essentially snapshot, and then scaled down to fix. When the whole thing was scaled down to fit this gray area, our chart ended up as just this top left corner.

[04:33] This is all somewhat convoluted, and thankfully, you're not going to really deal with setting viewBox values manually most of the time. I'm going to go ahead and set this back to the way we were before, and get rid of these.

[04:48] We're back to our standard chart here that is 400 by 600 pixels wide, or at least our SVG element is. We're going to go ahead and add a function to our code here called responsivefy. This function was actually written by a guy named Brendan Sudol.

[05:07] I'll have a link to the original source post in the readme. Let's take a look at what this actually does. Responsivefy accepts an SVG argument here. This is actually an SVG selection. If we were to do svg and pass that in, that's what this is going to be expecting.

[05:29] It takes that SVG, and it calls the node method, which again, remember, returns the raw DOM node. Then it finds the parent node of that. In our case, we're drawing our SVG within this div with a class of chart. This would be the parent node.

[05:47] This function is going to save the reference to that parent element in this variable named container. It's going to measure the SVG element itself. It's going to get the width and the height of the SVG element however it has been drawn. Then it's going to calculate the aspect ratio.

[06:07] It will create the viewBox attribute, and set its dimensions to be the width and the height as well. When it's initially rendered, the SVG's width and height attributes will match exactly the width and height values within the viewBox attribute.

[06:24] We can ignore this preserve aspect ratio line for now. That's just instructions on how the SVG should be scaled when things aren't necessarily matched in terms of aspect ratio. Once it has set that viewBox attribute on the SVG, it's going to call a function called resize.

[06:45] What resize does is it will then get the width of the parent container. It measures the parent container, and finds out how wide it is. It updates the width attribute of our SVG to match the width of its parent container.

[07:04] It's essentially just telling the SVG, "You need to be as wide as whatever element you are inside of." It'll then update the height attribute of the SVG using that target width, and the aspect ratio that it calculated earlier.

[07:20] Here, it's also setting up a resize listener so that any time the actual browser window gets resized, this resize function will again get called.

[07:32] To see this in action, we're going to go back up here to our SVG selection, which is what we have in context here.

[07:40] If we just add a call to responsivefy, that's actually going to get called and passed our SVG selection. Now we're also going to go here, and we're going to remove the hard-coded width and height for our div.

[07:57] That's going to cause our div to fill the available horizontal space in our browser. That's just how divs behave. If we come back here, and we save this, we can see that our chart actually gets scaled as we resize our window.

[08:16] Again, if we go and look at what's happening, according to this responsivefy method, whenever the browser window gets resized, it's going to call this function. It's going to go find the width of the parent container, and set the SVG's width attribute to the same width as that container.

[08:37] It's then going to set the SVG's height attribute using that same width and the aspect ratio it initially calculated.

[08:46] If we go over here, make our browser window a little bit bigger, and open up our inspector, if we find our SVG tag in here...Here's our SVG tag. If we watch while we resize, you can see that the width and height attributes are actually being updated as we get resized. Our viewBox is staying 400 by 600, but our SVG width and height are being changed to match the parent container.

[09:17] When you set this initial width and height, what you're now essentially doing is just setting the aspect ratio that your chart should always follow. Your SVG element gets created with these width and height variables, but then responsivefy is called immediately.

[09:33] Those width and height attributes get updated according to the logic we looked at before. The only thing that really remains after the initial render is the ratio between your width and your height. As we make it wider here, you can see it's getting taller, because it's maintaining that same aspect ratio.

Víctor de la Cruz
Víctor de la Cruz
~ 6 years ago

This is needlessly complex. To get the same behaviour, just remove the width and height attributes from the SVG element and you'll get a responsive or "fluid" SVG.

As described here:

~ 5 years ago

Question for responsivefy function, The height won't work on a dynamic tree data.

pery mimon mimon
pery mimon mimon
~ 5 years ago

What wrong with just CSS {width:100%, height:100%} or css grid or css flex ; and if the code want to responce to resize event is much better to update the dom in requestanimationFrame

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