Become a member
to unlock all features

Level Up!

Access all courses & lessons on egghead today and lock-in your price for life.


    Redux: Writing a Todo List Reducer (Adding a Todo)

    Dan AbramovDan Abramov
    0.14 - 16
    3 - 4

    Learn how to implement adding a todo in a todo list application reducer.



    Become a Member to view code

    You must be a Member to view code

    Access all courses and lessons, track your progress, gain confidence and expertise.

    Become a Member
    and unlock code for this lesson


    00:00 Just like in the previous two lessons, I'm using expect library to make test assertions and deep freeze library to prevent accidental mutations in my code. In this lesson, I will create the reducer for a to-do list application whose state is described an array of to-dos.

    00:18 Just to remind you what a reducer is, it's a pure function you write to implement the update logic of your application -- that is, how the next state is calculated given the current state and the action being dispatched.

    00:33 Before writing a reducer, I want to have a way of knowing whether its code is correct, so I'm starting by writing a test for it. I'm declaring two variables, the state before, which is an empty array, and the action being dispatched, which is an action describing user adding any to-do with some ID and a text.

    00:55 I am also declaring the state I expect to get after calling the reducer. Like state before, it is an array, but this time, it has a single element representing the to-do that was just added. So it has the same ID and the text as the action object. It also has an additional field called, "completed," that I want to be initialized to be false.

    01:20 We want to make sure that the reducer is a pure function, so I'm calling deep freeze both on the state and the action. Finally, I am ready to use the expect library to verify that if I call the to-do reducer with the state before and the action object, I'm going to get the result that is deeply equal to the state after I just declared.

    01:45 This concludes my first test. Now I can call it just like a regular JavaScript function. If it doesn't throw in the expect call, I'm going to see a message saying that the tests have passed.

    01:59 Of course, it fails because the reducer is not implemented yet. It's an empty function. So it returns undefined instead of the array with a single item that I expect in the test.

    02:13 To fix this, I would need my reducer to take a look at the action type property, which is a string. When it matches the at to-do string, which I specify as the action type in my test, to satisfy the test I need to return a new array which includes all items from the original array but also a new to-do item that has its ID and text copied from the action object and a completed field set to false.

    02:44 Finally, I add a default case to my switch statement because averages has to return the current state for any unknown action.

    02:54 Now the test runs successfully. Let's recap the data flow in this example to see why.

    03:03 First, I create the state array, which is an empty array, and the action object inside my test function. I'm passing them as arguments to my reducer function, called, "to-dos." The to-dos reducer accepts the state and the action as arguments and takes a look at the action type.

    03:26 In this case, the action type is a string saying, "at to-do," so it matches the switch case inside the reducer. The reducer returns a new array which contains the items from the old array and the new item representing the added to-do.

    03:44 However, the state we passed from the test was actually an empty array, so, at the end, we're going to get an array with a single item, which is the new to-do.

    03:57 Finally, we compare the return value to an array with a single to-do item to make sure that the reducer works as intended. The equality check passes. This makes the test successful.