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    Define Functional Components in Preact

    Shane OsbourneShane Osbourne

    Many components within an application can be rendered using only data that is ‘passed’ to them by a parent. We call these “Functional Components” as they do not contain any internal state. In this lesson we look at how to define these types of components and how to pass data to them.

    reactReact
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    Transcript

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    00:00 In this example, we have our app wrapper and then we have the elements that make up this user card. Now when we look at this, there are two pieces of potentially dynamic data here, the image source and the user name.

    00:14 Everything else about this user information here can be considered to be static content. This makes it a prime candidate for being extracted out into a functional component. To do that, we'll copy this code and we'll create a new file called user.js. We'll import each from preact as we do on any file that contains JSX, and then we can export function called user.

    00:44 This will return the JSX we copied from the other file. Then we'll also export the other default. Now back in our app file, we can remove this completely, and use the user component. We need to import this, and when we save, you can see that we still get the same result.

    01:10 Now, let's tackle those two pieces of potentially dynamic data, the image source and the user name. If we go back to the user component, where we were providing a hard-coded string here, we can remove this including the double quotes, and we can instead provide an expression.

    01:27 Functional components receive props argument, and then we can decide what we want to call this field. Perhaps we'll say props.image. We can do the same thing for the name, so get rid of this text, two curlies, and that's a props.name.

    01:45 OK, so now we have a user component that accepts some properties and returns some JSX. This is why we call it a functional component, it doesn't maintain any internal state, it just takes props in and gives JSX back.

    02:01 Now we need to actually pass these properties in when we use this component. Back in the app file, you pass them in like any other HTML attribute. We can say image is equal to, paste that image in there, and name is equal to James Osborne. Let's break this onto multiple lines, and as you can see, we now have the same results.

    02:23 Now we have this reusable user component that encapsulates everything it needs to do with styling, or class names, or how it uses data, all within its own component and it allows similar components pass in this data. The benefits of splitting your code up into functional components like this becomes really clear when you need to reuse them.

    02:46 Let's say we wanted to add a second user, then we can just change the image source and the name, and there you see we've managed to reuse all of the code inside this component and just provide the dynamic parts when we actually call it.

    03:04 In reality you probably won't be hard-coding these strings anyway, but rather you'll have some sort of data source that has these values in it. Let's say we have this array of users where I've just extracted the image and the name from each of these. Now we want to provide a user component for each user. The way we do that is that we map over that data.

    03:26 We could say users.map and we'll have access to each user, and we can return from this that user component then if the property names of your data match up with the properties inside this component, you could just spread the user into the component and then add a key. We'll use the user.name, save that, and we get the same result.

    03:55 Now no matter how many items we had in this array, everything will still work. Just for clarity, this here is exactly the same as providing user.image there and name = user.name.

    04:20 Finally, we use this key attribute which is something that preact uses internally to keep track of the elements that it's rendering, so we can just set it to something that's unique to this user object.

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